Modernism

The beginning of the twentieth century coincided with the advent and growth of  the Modern Art Aesthetic. Listed below are some of the major movements of the time period (1900’s to 1930’s) that had a major impact on the direction of design, and still influence design today.

Cubism

Cubism was one of the first influences of modernism. This was an experimental art movement that looks at layout and space in new and innovative ways. Think Geometric Abstraction. Pablo Picasso was a major artist of this style as well as Fernand Leger. His work influenced new letterform compositions. Cubism was about questioning the status-quo and encouraging new ways of looking at space.

Futurism

Like Cubism, futurism was a new direction away from old thinking on aesthetics. It was not only an artistic movement,, it was also a social movement as well. Futurism sought to embrace a new and fantastic future.  Futurism was about speed and mechanization, it embraced technology and high minded ideals. It influenced architecture, literature, film, and design as well as introducing creative type as typography took on new creative forms. An example of this new typography work can be seen in the work of Lewis Carroll, author of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.

 

Dadaism

Dadaism was a strong social stance. It was an avant-garde anti-war movement that was against the exploitation of the wage-earning class and even rejected forms of art. The work of this style challenged politics and was considered controversial for its social and political stances.

Dada pushed boundaries and was highly experimental. It was a heady influence on graphic design. The idea of photo manipulation was not necessarily new, but the Dadaists would push it in new, exciting directions such as John Heartfield’s work “Hitler Swallows gold and spouts junk”. Manipulating photos was not a new method by the time Dadaism came around but it did prove the power of photography and montages.

 

Surrealism

Surrealism came about at the beginning of the century and was inspired by Dada. It questioned the very nature of space and time. Some noteworthy contributors including Salvador Dali and René Magritte. Surrealist works dealt with the human psyche, dreams and human nature, often combining visual elements in unnatural ways. Frida Kahlo has often been called surrealist, in the way she combined the realistic with an otherworldly element. Surrealism as an art form is alive and well in todays art world.

 

Plakatstil

Plakatstil (German, “Poster Style”), was almost the antithesis to Surrealism. It embraced flat colors, minimalistic qualities and focused on layout and typography. with emphasis on the relationship between pictorial and typographic elements.  A great example of this style is Lucian Bernhards “Poster for Priester Matches”. Note the flat, solid colors, contrast, and use of negative space. Compare this to the complex and colorful Art Nouveau which preceded Plakatstil and you get a sense of the giant shift that took place in terms of art and design and the minimalism that began to dominate.

 

Graphic Design History: Art Nouveau – 20th century

Art Nouveau (French – “New Art”) was a aesthetic of the late 18th century to the early 19th century that questioned the very nature of aesthetics. As art and design moved toward the modern era, Art Nouveau was a truly international style that maintained strong aesthetics despite of industrialization. Artists such as Alphonse Mucha and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec are great examples.

Savonnerie De Bagnolet By Alphonse Maria Mucha

Savonnerie De Bagnolet
By Alphonse Maria Mucha

http://www.alfonsmucha.org/Savonnerie-De-Bagnolet.html

The Japanese Ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) design movement was a major influence on the western art world during this time period, and this was a driving influence in Art Nouveau. Ukiyo-e is expressive and organic line art which remained an important design aesthetic in Japan for centuries. Unlike the arts and craft movement, Art Nouveau was not just focused on the small time artist or craftsman. Art Nouveau also translated to everyday objects, furniture and architecture, to stained glass and well known for the poster ads of the era.

Some artists and designers of the time such as the The Glasgow Four  preferred the aesthetics of Geometry to the sometimes heavily floral embellishments of Art Nouveau. The Vienna Secession was another group that experimented with spatial relationships and layout design. This experimental era was the advent of modern design.

KUNISADA (1786-1864)  From the series "The fifty-three stations of the Tôkaidô" (with portraits of actors) - 1852  Signature: Toyokuni

KUNISADA (1786-1864)
From the series “The fifty-three stations of the Tôkaidô” (with portraits of actors) – 1852
Signature: Toyokuni

http://www.secutor.se/ukiyo-e/umaxi009.jpg
See Art Nouveau posters at http://www.internationalposter.com/style-primer/art-nouveau.aspx
Check out Japanese wood block printing at http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ukiy/hd_ukiy.htm
 

Graphic Design History: The printing press in Medieval Europe

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Wood block printing technology transformed graphic design in Europe beginning in the 1400’s. This allowed for written materials to be available to more then just the rich elite. Traditional scribing methods which took considerable artistry and time commitment now gave way to woodblock printing. This enabled faster and easier to produce printed materials. This is what defines early graphic design in Europe. One well known example: the Gutenberg bible. Johannes Gutenberg is largely credited with the creation of movable type.

During this time graphic design was flourishing in Italy, though Germany remained the heart of the early printing industry for a good while. During this era, graphic design shows an aesthetic that included the liberal use of decorative flourish designs, and because this was an early transition from Calligraphy and traditional scribing methods, the aesthetic of typography of the time had a calligraphy feel. This technological shift also coincided with political and religious shifts and graphic design today as it was back then is a reflection of the social, political and technological climate of the times.

Example of 1500’s woodblock print.

15th Century German woodcut print

from http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/137643/enlarge
543e43b9eb1c3abf29aa31183d1f776a
http://www.pinterest.com/pin/402650022905429529/
Flourish from http://rlv.zcache.com/abstract_vintage_medieval_swirly_flourish_design_postcard-rf80c1b79534a4d74afeb978d48a52de7_vgbaq_8byvr_512.jpg
 

Final project for Illustration class: Children’s book cover

Created with Photoshop. I was marked down by the Instructor for not having a more finished end product and also a lack of adequate shading used on the characters. I admit that I do not find my final project to be 100% complete, as it is still a little bit rough around the edges. I learned a great deal from this illustration class, the most important being the illustrator process. Of 12 thumbnail sketches I developed 3 of my best. Of those 3 I chose this one for the final project, thought I made adjustments. I did not create a grey scale version before colorizing because of lack of time but I think this is one of the most important steps for good shading and contrast.

diamanu_illustrationfinalsmall_091914